The Biden administration released its proposed FY 2022 budget, which helps bring some clarity to the continued priorities of the administration. The budget reflects the administrations promise to rebuild a strong public health and community-based care system that can respond to the health challenges faced in diverse areas across the United States. Many priorities of the administration align with ANA’s advocacy focus to support nurses in areas such as workforce, behavioral health, maternal health, rural health, preparedness and safety including personal protective equipment (PPE), and research.
Below are a few highlights from the proposed budget that align with the work of ANA:
- $15.4 billion for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, which reflects the largest budget authority increase in nearly two decades. The funding would go to support core public health capacity improvements, modernize data collection, training for public health experts, and prepare for, and respond to emerging global threats.
- $12.6 billion for the Health Resources and Service Administration, which is $497 million above FY 2021 enacted.
- $52 billion for the National Institutes of Health (NIH), an increase of $9 billion above FY 2021 enacted. $6.5 billion of the $9 billion increase is to support the establishment of the Advanced Research Projects Agency for Health, that is intended to speed transformational innovation in health research for diseases like cancer, diabetes, and Alzheimer’s. The remaining $2.5 billion will continue the research and translation into clinical practice for some of the most urgent challenges including the opioid crisis, climate change, and gun violence. ANA continues to monitor communications and opportunities to engage with the National Institute of Nursing Research under NIH.
- An increase of $3.7 billion above FY 2021 enacted, for a total of $9.7 billion for the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration with a charge to respond to the opioid and substance use epidemic by expanding programs and targeting prevention and treatment; and increasing access to mental health services to protect the health of children and communities.
- $14.2 billion for the Department of Labor (DOL), including $665 million for the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), $73 million above FY 2021 enacted, for increased enforcement and whistleblower protection programs. The DOL budget requests $285 million for apprenticeship programs, specifically $100 million increase for the Registered Apprentice Program. There is no additional information on the DOL industry-recognized apprenticeship programs (IRAPs), which have supported nurse training initiatives.
The Biden administration has been vocal about priorities that will transform the health care system. However, the administration’s budget is slightly more than a wish list. Ultimately it is up to Congress to fund the agencies. ANA urges the Administration and Congress to focus on rebuilding and transforming the health care system to improve on the challenges brought forth during the pandemic. Nurses have been the agents of transformative change in facilities, systems, and communities to support improved patient outcomes and advancing equity. Building on these successes, ANA will work with the agencies and administration to build on the budget priorities to continue to put nurses at the forefront of change.
ANA is also working on the Hill for legislation that will address infrastructure and access for telehealth services, PPE for the current and future public health emergencies, and workplace safety programs for nurses. ANA’s advocacy includes a multi-pronged approach to deliver what nurses need in all settings. It is clear through the first budget of this administration that health care is a top priority to improve as we transition to a post-pandemic environment.
While it is only the second month of 2020, it is never too
early to look to 2021, when the revised Evaluation and Management (E/M) office
codes go into effect per the Centers
for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) CY 2020 Physician Fee Schedule (PFS)
Final Rule. CMS first proposed the updated Medicare E/M codes July 2018 in
the CY 2019 PFS proposed rule to address the common perception that the E/M
codes were outdated and to achieve administrative simplification. What is
- Deletion of code 99201
- Revision of codes 99202-99215P
- Components for code selection
- E/M level of service for office or other outpatient services can be based on:
- Medical Decision Making (MDM); or
- Time: total time spent with the patient on the date of the encounter, including non-face-to-face services
- Creation of a shorter 15-minute prolonged service code
Over the next few months ANA will take a deeper dive into these changes and will continue to share further guidance from CMS. These code changes are intended for increased simplicity and flexibility. They eliminate the need for the clinician to redocument information, therefore reducing burden and “note bloat”. ANA encourages clinicians impacted to take the next eleven months to better understand how to use the updated codes.
With code 99201 deleted; the Office or other Outpatient
Services: new patient code starts with 99202. The updated code states: Office
or other outpatient visit for the evaluation and management of a new patient,
which requires medically appropriate history and/or examination and straightforward
medical decision making. The components of history and examination are
removed from this updated code.
This continues for 99203, 99204, and 99205 but with the
increase in MDM to low MDM, moderate MDM, and high MDM respectively. Codes
99211 through 99215 are for established patients following a similar pattern,
except that 99211 will still be available in 2021 with an update of the time to
spend performing or supervising the services.
The updated modifications to the criteria for MDM remove ambiguous terms and defines previously ambiguous concepts (such as acute or chronic illness with systemic systems). To qualify for a level of MDM, two of three elements for that level of decision making must be met or exceeded. Starting January 1, 2021, the new MDM table looks like:
|Number and Complexity of Problems Addressed at the Encounter |
Low: Stable, uncomplicated, single problem
Moderate: multiple problems or significantly ill
High: very ill
|Amount and/or Complexity of Data to be Reviewed and Analyzed Data is divided into three categories: (1) tests, documents, orders, or independent historian(s) – each unique test, order, or document is counted to meet a threshold number; (2) independent interpretation of tests not reported separately; (3) discussion of management or test interpretation with external physician/other Qualified Health Professional/appropriate source (not reported separately) |
|Risk of Complications and/or Morbidity or Mortality of Patient Management |
Includes risks associated with social determinants of health
Straightforward: minimal risk from treatment – including no treatment – or testing. (effectively no risk)
Low: low risk/very low risk of anything bad, minimal consent/discussion Moderate: would typically review with patient/surrogate, obtain consent and monitor, or there are complex social factors in management (ex: prescription drug management, decision regarding minor surgery with identified patient or procedure risk factors, diagnosis or treatment significantly limited by social determinants of health)
High: need to discuss some pretty bad things that could happen for which physician or other qualified health care professional will watch and monitor (ex: drug therapy requiring intensive monitoring for toxicity, decision regarding emergency major surgery, decision regarding hospitalization)
ANA will continue to provide updates and content as
clarifications become available. Currently, The American Medical Association
has a module to
continue in your education on the updated E/M Office Codes and remember that these
codes do not go into effect until January 2021.
By Brooke Trainum and Janet Haebler
As we celebrate America’s birthday and the freedoms we enjoy, recent headlines remind us that others’ have not been as fortunate. The July 4th holiday comes right after a federal judge’s order to US Customs and Border Protection (CBP) addressing concerns in detention facilities holding refugees. On June 28th, a federal judge in Texas ruled that “CBP must permit health experts into detention facilities holding migrant children to ensure they’re ‘safe and sanitary’ and assess the children’s medical needs.” This order is only applicable in the El Paso and Rio Grande Valley regions, due to the subject of the lawsuit. Judge Dolly Gee gave the Trump administration a deadline of July 12th to report what they have done to correct the conditions. This ruling is on the heels of Secretary of Health and Human Services Alex Azar stating in an interview shared by Politico that “the centers run by CBP were not good conditions for kids to be in.”
The situation at the border is complex in nature and for many that can lead to a feeling of helplessness and despair. ANA has repeatedly expressed concerns with the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and Congress, most recently via a June 2019 letter sent to DHS. Additionally, Congress recently passed emergency supplemental funding to help alleviate this situation. Given the complexities of this issue there was even disagreement within the political parties on how to address this crisis.
The reports coming from these detention facilities are unfathomable. There are two main government agencies that oversee refugee shelters, with both DHS and HHS each carrying a different mission. The Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR) within HHS is specifically responsible for unaccompanied minor children; however, it has been the facilities overseen by DHS and CBP that has made the news most recently as having unsafe, unsanitary, and inhumane conditions.
What many do not realize is the unacceptable conditions of border detention facilities is not new. Greater media attention has highlighted the situation. Accommodations erected decades ago were intended for single males, not families. The situation has been exacerbated by a backlog in the immigration court system. Under standard procedures, detention is intended to be for a short duration, not exceeding 72 hours, while claims for asylum are received and processed. Yet, it has been reported that in mid-2019, the average length of detention exceeded one week. In May and June 2019, between 14,000 and 18,000 people were held by CBP each night. And yet another confounding factor is that several of the detention facilities housing refugees are operated by private corporations who have contracts with Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE).
While many agree that immigration laws need to be reviewed and modernized, this is an issue where many Americans are split on the solution. Due to this divide, ANA has focused on the immediate issue of a humanitarian crisis affecting the health and well-being of those impacted at the border. As nurses, we have a duty through the Code of Ethics for Nurses to speak out and advocate for the human rights and health care needs of all, particularly the most vulnerable.